By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's spouse Website
▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, significantly laptop Programming, normal and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced structures, synthetic Intelligence and laptop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This e-book first offers the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a number of disciplines through evaluating either commonalities and alterations. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to seize them. This version makes the thought of abstraction simply acceptable by way of the advent of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diverse domain names and purposes. it's the effect of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and computing device studying which creates the center of the booklet. A normal framework, in keeping with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares numerous methods to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, reminiscent of cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ offers a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we began scripting this booklet we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it's going to take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, in the course of the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it sincerely emerged that vital effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the publication replaced, by
itself, from the meant evaluation of the earlier to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would feel free if the reader, rather than being content material with the information we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to head past them.
We current a wide collection of works on abstraction in numerous disciplines;
nonetheless many suitable contributions to the sector were inevitably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they might fill. We make an apology for the missing
In this ebook we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this is often not
the center of the booklet. It has a restricted scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that a number of prior proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with within a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational setting for appearing abstraction through employing a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). actually, there's nonetheless a gap
between normal abstraction theories, generally based logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban methods that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a vast spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental principles on which it relies
are extra very important than the version itself. those rules are definitely controversial; some
reader may possibly imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another may perhaps imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The ebook isn't meant to be a textbook: it truly is distinctive to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction suggestions, with out quandary of fields. computing device scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the publication. a few components are extra formalized, and so they may
look advanced initially sight. in spite of the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable by way of intuition.
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Extra info for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
The interesting conclusion of the study is that the two representations are not distinguishable on the basis of empirical findings . The view of abstraction offered by Barsalou consists in an embodied theory , which is based on simulation . According to his view, people have simulators of objects’ properties and relations, which are acquired by experience and which they run for interpreting sensory inputs. The set of simulators applied to an instance can be considered as an abstraction.
In order to support his claim, he offers two examples; the first is the formula (a+b)2 = a 2 +2ab+b2 , which is generalized (but not abstracted) when its validity is extended from natural numbers (a and b) to rational ones. On the other hand, the same formula is abstracted when it is considered to hold for any two commuting elements in a ring. The second example consists in the description “all prime numbers less than 20”, which is more abstract (but not more general) than “the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19”.
Ferrari argues that generalization, decontextualization and reification are all basic components of abstraction in Mathematics, but that abstraction cannot be identified with any single one of them. For instance, generalization, defined as an extensional inclusion relation, cannot exhaust the abstraction process, which also includes recognition of common properties, adoption of a compact axiom set, and definition of a notation systems to deal with newly defined concepts. 3 Mathematics 23 of decontextualization, intended as privileging syntactic rules and disregarding meaning and interpretation related to some given context.
Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker